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The challenging part of researching these early pies is most of us rely on translators of original texts.
These can vary according to scholarly proficiency and educated interpretation.
Moreover, there are several editions of ancient texts and recipe numbers/titles do not always match.
Food historians confirm the ancients crafted foods approximating pie.
" ---Apicius, Book VII, IX, Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome, edited and translated by Joseph Dommers Vehling, facsimile 1936 edition [Dover Publications: Mineola NY] 1977 (p.
Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).
All figure prominently into the complicated history of this particular genre of food.
Some pie-type foods are made for individual consumption. pasties, turnovers, empanadas, pierogi, calzones..enjoyed by working classes and sold by street vendors.
Pie variations (cobblers, slumps, grunts, etc.) are endless! " The Oxford English Dictionary traces the first use of the word "pie" as it relates to food to 1303, noting the word was well-known and popular by 1362. " "Pie...a word whose meaning has evolved in the course of many centuries and which varies to some extent according to the country or even to region....